# Spell Sequences, State Proximities, and Distance Metrics

@article{Elzinga2015SpellSS, title={Spell Sequences, State Proximities, and Distance Metrics}, author={Cees H. Elzinga and Matthias Studer}, journal={Sociological Methods \& Research}, year={2015}, volume={44}, pages={3 - 47} }

Because optimal matching (OM) distance is not very sensitive to differences in the order of states, we introduce a subsequence-based distance measure that can be adapted to subsequence length, to subsequence duration, and to soft-matching of states. Using a simulation technique developed by Studer, we investigate the sensitivity, relative to OM, of several variants of this metric to variations in order, timing, and duration of states. The results show that the behavior of the metric is as… Expand

#### Figures, Tables, and Topics from this paper

#### 44 Citations

A comparative review of sequence dissimilarity measures

- Geography
- 2014

This is a comparative study of the multiple ways of measuring dissimilarities between state sequences. For sequences describing life courses, such as family life trajectories or professional careers,… Expand

Three Narratives of Sequence Analysis

- Sociology
- 2014

How do we relate the distance between two sequences, as given by an algorithm such as optimal matching, to sociologically meaningful notions of similarity and dissimilarity? This has been… Expand

Normalization of Distance and Similarity in Sequence Analysis

- Mathematics, Medicine
- Sociological Methods & Research
- 2019

The relations between the notion of distance and a feature set–based concept of similarity has a spatial interpretation that is complementary to distance that is interpreted as “direction” and proper normalization leads to distances that can be directly interpreted as dissimilarity. Expand

What matters in differences between life trajectories: a comparative review of sequence dissimilarity measures

- Computer Science
- 2016

The study shows that there is no universally optimal distance index, and that the choice of a measure depends on which aspect the authors want to focus on, and introduces novel ways of measuring dissimilarities that overcome some flaws in existing measures. Expand

Mixture Hidden Markov Models for Sequence Data: The seqHMM Package in R

- Computer Science, Mathematics
- 2017

The seqHMM package in R is designed for the efficient modeling of sequences and other categorical time series data containing one or multiple subjects with one or several interdependent sequences using HMMs and MHMMs. Expand

Unsupervised Learning of the Sequences of Adulthood Transition Trajectories

- Computer Science
- 2020

Unsupervised learning of the sampled sequences of adulthood transitions considered herein has successfully demonstrated its potential usefulness in displaying and summarizing complex event history data into meaningful and interpretable dimensions to meet new challenges and to build policy framework for the adults of a nation. Expand

Divisive Property-Based and Fuzzy Clustering for Sequence Analysis

- Computer Science
- 2018

This paper discusses the usefulness of divisive property-based and fuzzy clustering for sequence analysis, and discusses several methods by which to visualize a fuzzy clusters solution, and analyzes them with regression-like approaches. Expand

Comparing methods of classifying life courses: sequence analysis and latent class analysis

- Mathematics
- 2017

We compare life course typology solutions generated by sequence analysis (SA) and latent class analysis (LCA). First, we construct an analytic protocol to arrive at typology solutions for both… Expand

Validating Sequence Analysis Typologies Using Parametric Bootstrap

- Medicine, Mathematics
- Sociological methodology
- 2021

A methodology for the validation of sequence analysis typologies on the basis of parametric bootstraps following the framework proposed by Hennig and Lin (2015) is proposed, which allows identifying the key structural aspects captured by the observed typology. Expand

Order or chaos? Understanding career mobility using sequence analysis and information-theoretic methods

- Psychology
- 2016

We examine the careers of a nationally representative US cohort of young adults using sequence analysis and information-theoretic techniques to describe these careers’ structure and how this… Expand

#### References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 68 REFERENCES

Optimal Matching Analysis and Life-Course Data: The Importance of Duration

- Mathematics
- 2010

The optimal matching (OM) algorithm is widely used for sequence analysis in sociology. It has a natural interpretation for discrete-time sequences but is also widely used for life-history data, which… Expand

Measuring Resemblance in Sequence Data: An Optimal Matching Analysis of Musicians' Careers

- Sociology
- American Journal of Sociology
- 1990

This article introduces a method that measures resemblance between sequences using a simple metric based on the insertions, deletions, and substitutions required to transform one sequence into… Expand

The subsequence composition of a string

- Computer Science, Mathematics
- Theor. Comput. Sci.
- 2009

Words that appear as constrained subsequences in a text-string are considered as possible indicators of the host string structure, hence also as a possible means of sequence comparison and… Expand

Measuring the Agreement between Sequences

- Mathematics
- 1995

The present article proposes a new method to assess distances between sequences of states, belonging to, for instance, event histories. It is based on the number of moves needed to turn one sequence… Expand

Algorithms for subsequence combinatorics

- Mathematics, Computer Science
- Theor. Comput. Sci.
- 2008

Theorems that lead to efficient dynamic programming algorithms to count distinct subsequences in a string are presented and sequences generated by a string allowing characters to come in runs of a length that is bounded from above are presented. Expand

Analyzing and Visualizing State Sequences in R with TraMineR

- Computer Science
- 2011

This article describes the many capabilities offered by the TraMineR toolbox for categorical sequence data. It focuses more specifically on the analysis and rendering of state sequences. Addressed… Expand

Setting Cost in Optimal Matching to Uncover Contemporaneous Socio-Temporal Patterns

- Mathematics
- 2010

This article addresses the question of the effects of cost setting on the kind of temporal patterns optimal matching (OM) can uncover when applied to social science data. It is argued that the… Expand

On Order Equivalences between Distance and Similarity Measures on Sequences and Trees

- Mathematics, Computer Science
- ICPRAM
- 2012

It is shown that alignment-orderings by distance can be dualized by similarity, and vice-versa, and that there are categorisation and hierarchical clustering outcomes which can be achieved via similarity but not via distance. Expand

Discrepancy Analysis of State Sequences

- Mathematics
- 2011

In this article, the authors define a methodological framework for analyzing the relationship between state sequences and covariates. Inspired by the principles of analysis of variance, this approach… Expand

MULTICHANNEL SEQUENCE ANALYSIS APPLIED TO SOCIAL SCIENCE DATA: multichannel sequence analysis

- Computer Science
- 2010

This article proposes the method of multichannel sequence analysis (MCSA), which simultaneously extends the usual optimal matching analysis (OMA) to multiple life spheres and finds that MCSA offers an alternative to the sole use of ex-post sum of distance matrices by locally aligning distinct life trajectories simultaneously. Expand